A manual of radioactivity,, Edition: Enlarged 2nd by Georg von Hevesy

By Georg von Hevesy

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The above is numbers have reference to the total ionization caused by j3-rays. In general, the primary ionization amounts only to a fraction of the total ionization, and it arises by virtue of the fact that the primary /^-particles ionize individual atoms. The number of these initially ionized atoms can be evaluated by means of the cloud method, for a water droplet is associated with each ion. The evaluation of the number of droplets along the path of a ^-particle of one-third the velocity of light yields for the number of primary pairs of ions produced about 90 per cm.

The values of the ordinates diminish in geo- j8-rays is considerably greater metrical progression as the abscissae increase in arithmetical progression. | The intensity of the radiation is reduced to half its value in its passage through a layer of thickness 016 mm. Al, after passing through 2x0-16 mm. it is reduced to a quarter, and so on. Accordingly, the 'half-value thickness' of aluminium for the j3-rays from RaE has the t The decrease in the radioactivity of every simple disintegrating radioactive substance takes place according to the same type of curve (see graph B in Fig.

Is but little pressure. of the absorbing material, and is approxinature the on dependent for as a-rays of long as for those of short range. The large mately just of the a-particles, at the end of their path, are fluctuations in The breadth of range related fundamentally to the fact that both the transfer of energy in density of the gas during individual collisions and the fluctuations molecules have a statistical distribution. Probability Fluctuations in the Emission of a-Rays If we count the number of scintillations produced on a scintillation screen by a constant and homogeneous source of radiation in intervals 6.

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