By Walter Savitch
Absolute C++ , bargains whole insurance of the C++ programming language. It offers all of the instruments worthy for knowledgeable and beginner programmers to grasp C++, together with: thorough insurance of the traditional Template Library; entire and entirely executable code all through; sections highlighting programming counsel and customary pitfalls; and a logical order of insurance of C++ subject matters to ensure that scholars to raised comprehend the language. This ebook is acceptable for introductory classes overlaying the C++ language, intermediate programming classes introducing C++ to scholars conversant in one other language and may act as a complete reference past a student's coursework.
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Extra resources for Absolute C++, First edition
In C++, going to the next line is considered to be a special character, and the way you spell this special character inside a quoted string is \n, with no space between the two symbols in \n. Although it is typed as two symbols, C++ considers \n to be a single character that is called the newline character. If you wish to insert a blank line in the output, you can output the newline character \n by itself: cout << "\n"; Another way to output a blank line is to use endl, which means essentially the same thing as "\n".
Pitfall STRINGS OF INEQUALITIES Do not use a string of inequalities such as x < z < y. If you do, your program will probably compile and run, but it will undoubtedly give incorrect output. = ’n’ ans ≠ ’n’ < Less than < count < m + 3 count < m + 3 ≤ Less than or equal to <= time <= limit time ≤ limit > Greater than > time > limit time > limit ≥ Greater than or equal to >= age >= 21 age ≥ 21 THE “OR” OPERATOR, || You can form a more elaborate Boolean expression by combining two simpler Boolean expressions using the “or” operator, ||.
An assignment expression’s value is the value transferred to the variable on the left. For example, the value of x = 12 is 12. We saw in our discussion of Boolean value compatibility that nonzero int values are converted to true. If you use x = 12 as the Boolean expression in an if-else statement, the Boolean expression will always evaluate to true. This error is very hard to find, because it looks right. The compiler can find the error without any special instructions if you put the 12 on the left side of the comparison: 12 == x will produce no error message, but 12 = x will generate an error message.