By S. Betzelt, S. Bothfeld
This ebook analyzes in what approach activation guidelines impression on given styles of social citizenship that predominate in nationwide contexts. It argues that the liberal paradigm of activation brought into labour marketplace rules in all Western ecu states demanding situations the explicit styles of social citizenship in each one kingdom.
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Extra info for Activation and Labour Market Reforms in Europe: Challenges to Social Citizenship (Work and Welfare in Europe)
However, focusing poverty and social exclusion alone comes up against two important limitations concerning the normative argument for the justiﬁcation of the welfare state as a whole. The focus on poverty implies the risk of narrowing the perspective on the needy faction of the population, while middle-class expectations and ‘needs’, which equally require welfare state intervention, are neglected in this debate. The poverty approach is adequate to deliver Rawlsian arguments, as it focuses on the very lowest faction of income distribution but does not help to ﬁnd good arguments for the protection of ‘less needy’ citizens.
As such, the social status of citizens represents a reliable structure – as a result of historical and political negotiation – that shapes social expectations on the part of both employees and employers. In social insurance states, we observe a paradox movement. On the one hand, the core status of the (male) standard worker (professionally qualiﬁed, working full-time on the basis of a permanent contract with the same employer) is maintained and protected and has, with political support from the social democratic party and the trade unions, remained the status of reference for social provision.
190). While commitment and participation play a role at different levels of society, with regard to our topic of activation policies, it is mainly the transparency of rules and the interaction with the frontline staff on the street level that are at stake. The need to turn to alternative forms of activation policies and that people’s needs (or autonomy) should become the approach for social policy design has been pointed out by earlier writings (Van Berkel and Roche, 2002). So, mechanisms inviting citizens to participate (either in the formulation of policies or in the process of implementation) can have both effects, encouraging them Silke Bothfeld and Sigrid Betzelt 31 and thereby enhancing their commitment to the public authority, or constraining them by setting narrow conditions and limiting choice.