Advances in Computers, Vol. 35 by Marshall C. Yovits

By Marshall C. Yovits

This quantity in a sequence detailing concepts in all features of machine technology, is worried with relational databases, tactile details processing and research, object-oriented process improvement equipment; opposite engineering, multiprocessing, foreign computing, and others.

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Even though El and E2 share most of their attributes, it is possible that the designer may not wish to integrate them because these classes represent different real-world objects and no applications are expected that will need to treat both of them as instances of some more generic entity type (say, Person). In the case the designer decides that they should be integrated, they may be integrated in the same way as entity types with overlapping RWS. The only difference is that EI and E2 in the integrated schema will be disjoint in this case.

Relationship types have a role name, and it is written near the diamond. The ER diagram given in Fig. 9 does not represent the universe of discourse in full detail. Whenever we want to represent more details of the academic database we will extend the diagram by additional concepts in the following. The ER modeling concepts presented previously are sufficient for representing many database schemas for traditional database applications. However, since the late 1970s database technology is being applied to newer applications, and the need for additional concepts to represent more semantics of the real world is evident.

The F-schema is complete with respect to the Dschema if every data retrieval or manipulation operation that should be performed in the resulting database is expressed in the F-schema. In particular, for each stored item, there must be a process that is at least responsible for the data item’s creation. If D-schema and F-schema are complete in this respect, we say the joint data and function schema is mutually complete. Mutual completeness is required only in the final versions of the conceptual schema; however, it can be achieved more easily if it is continuously tested on intermediate versions of the schemas as well.

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