By Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill
Ebook through Carolyn J. Hill, Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen
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Extra info for Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes among White and Minority Youth
OUTCOME MEASURES This chapter examines three categories of outcomes for young adults: employment, education, and risky behaviors. For employment outcomes, we examine hourly wages, hours worked, and weeks worked. 5 To achieve comparability across the two NLSY cohorts, the wage rate includes tips and bonuses as well as regular wages. 6 Hours and weeks worked are measured for the 52 weeks prior to the week of the interview. For educational outcomes, we examine enrollment and educational attainment.
In the subsequent chapters, we examine the extent to which these outcomes—especially the patterns by race—can be attributed to household structure and parental characteristics and behaviors. For now, we note the wide gaps in successful educational and employment outcomes between young blacks and other groups, especially for young black men and especially for those who fail to complete high school. Gender (omitted category: male) Female Age Education level (omitted category: not enrolled, bachelor’s degree) Not enrolled, high school dropout or GED Not enrolled, high school diploma Not enrolled, some college or associate’s degree Enrolled, two-year college Enrolled, four-year college GPA in high school ASVAB percentile Natural log of hourly wage, past year Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Weeks worked, past year High school dropout, Nov.
2001) have noted a growing trend towards cohabitation among unmarried parents in the United States, and that such unions tend to be shorter and more unstable than traditional marriages. But the effects of different patterns of cohabitation on youth outcomes, among both whites and minorities, have only recently been explored (Acs and Nelson 2003; Brown 2002; Dunifon and Kowaleski-Jones 2002; Manning and Lamb 2003). 7. Ashcraft and Lang (2006) discuss this literature and the potential upward and downward biases in various estimates of these effects.