Aisoaceae by van Jaarsfeld E.J., de Villiers P.U.

By van Jaarsfeld E.J., de Villiers P.U.

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The fertile parts of the flower are inside the petals (Fig. 1). They consist of the pollen-bearing male parts, stamens, in one or more whorls and the female carpels in the center. Stamens consist of a stalk, the filament, and an anther enclosing the pollen grains. In some flowers there is an indefinitely large number of stamens, whereas in others the number corresponds to the number of petals or twice the number if there are two whorls. The carpels are usually fewer in number and consist of a basal ovary which contains the ovules, and above this a stalk, the style, which is topped by a stigma, the surface onto which pollen grains will land for fertilization.

A few other plants have outgrowths from the petiole or main stem that resemble leaves and act like them. The acacias of Australia, for instance, have flattened petioles but no lamina, while the butchers’ broom of Europe has no leaves, but flattened stem outgrowths that bear flowers. Modified leaves also have a number of important roles in the plant, for instance as storage tissue in the fleshy scales of bulbs, as the protective scales of buds or as tendrils, which give support to climbing plants. Epidermal cell Mesophyll cell Bundle sheath cell Vascular bundle Air space Stomatal pore Fig.

Related topics Leaf types Plastids and mitochondria (B3) Herbaceous stems and primary growth (C3) Features of growth and development (F1) Water retention and stomata (I2) C3 and C4 plants and CAM (J3) The major photosynthetic organ of most plants is the foliage leaf (Fig. 1). This is mainly made up of cells containing chloroplasts. They are generally flat and thin with a lamina of large surface area attached to the plant by a stalk or petiole. The structure is arranged so that both the leaf lamina and the chloropasts can be orientated to the sunlight.

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