By Frank L. Holt
To all those that witnessed his notable conquests, from Albania to India, Alexander the nice seemed invincible. How Alexander himself promoted this appearance--how he abetted the idea that he loved divine want and commanded even the forces of nature opposed to his enemies--is the topic of Frank L. Holt's soaking up e-book.
Solid facts for the ''supernaturalized'' Alexander lies in a unprecedented sequence of medallions that depict the effective younger king at warfare opposed to the elephants, archers, and chariots of Rajah Porus of India on the conflict of the Hydaspes River. Recovered from Afghanistan and Iraq in sensational and infrequently perilous conditions, those old artifacts have lengthy lively the fashionable ancient debate approximately Alexander. Holt's ebook, the 1st dedicated to the secret of those historical medallions, takes us into the background in their discovery and interpretation, into the knowable evidence in their manufacture and that means, and, eventually, into the king's personal psyche and his scary theology of struggle. the result's a helpful research of Alexander historical past and delusion, a brilliant account of numismatics, and a spellbinding check out the age-old mechanics of megalomania.
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Additional resources for Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions
31 At ﬁrst, the enemy rallied around a kinsman of Darius named Bessus, formerly the satrap (governor) of Bactria but now claiming the throne of Persia as King Artaxerxes. Alexander countered such claims by right of conquest, and hunted Bessus down as a regicide and usurper. 32 Soon afterward, in response to Classical Antiquity, ed. Alastair Small, pp. 11–26 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996). 30. The noted economist John Maynard Keynes considered Europe’s plunder of the New World to be meager compared to Alexander’s despoliation of Persia: see his A Treatise on Money, vol.
A, E/A 1 and pl. 2. 39. Paul Bernard, “Le monnayage d’Eudamos, satrape grec du Pandjab et ‘maître des éléphants,’ ” in Orientalia Iosephi Tucci Memoriae Dicata, ed. G. Gnoli and L. Lanciotti (Rome: Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1985), 1: 65–94, esp. pp. 91–92, citing E. Zéjmal; also Robin Lane Fox, “Text and Image: Alexander the Great, Coins and Elephants,” Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 41 (1996): 97. A Treasure / 41 thusiasm. 40 The medallion almost certainly placed higher than might be expected from recent studies of his collecting career, where this artifact has been surprisingly ignored by many experts.
Before the three merchants could reach Jagdalak, the bandits swooped down. Quickly cutting the saddlebags from the mules, the Ghilzais carried them off, along with the merchants and their servant. By the time the convoy caught up to the abandoned mules, the robbers had disappeared into the mountains. They escaped through the Tesinka Pass to a perfect hideaway among the Karkacha caves (near the sites of camps and caves later used by Osama bin Laden and his terrorist net23. Robson, Road to Kabul, pp.