By Morris R. Cohen, Ernest Nagel
An advent to common sense and clinical approach is a faculty point primer on common sense. This ebook used to be greatly utilized by students in particular these learning economics as an advent to logical proposal in practise for highbrow discourse. Ludwig von Mises used to be identified to claim that every one scholars of economics should still learn this publication as a primary step of their education as economists.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method
What do we mean to affirm in asserting an alternative proposi tion? We do not intend to assert the truth or falsity of any of the alternants: we do not say that All men are selfish nor that All men are ignorant of their own interests. All that we do assert is that at least one of the alternants is true. Do we mean to say, however, that both alternants cannot be true? Usage in everyday conversation in this respect varies. An editorial which sums up the economic situation in the alternative proposi tion Either this country will adopt national economic planning, or a revolution cannot be avoided would generally be taken to mean that one, but not both, of the alternatives must be true.
Much care must be taken, however, in reducing a proposition ex pressed in one verbal form to the standard form, lest some part of its original meaning be neglected. In reducing a line of Keats’s poetry, for example, into a canonical form it is not easy to believe that every shade of meaning of the original has been retained. Quantity Categorical propositions have been classified on the basis of their quantity and their quality. In the proposition, All steaks are juicy, something is affirmed of every steak, while in the proposition, Some steaks are tough, information is supplied about an indefinite part of the class of steaks.
If we think of a categorical proposition as a relation between classes of individuals, an affirmative proposition asserts the inclusion of one class or part of a class in another, while a negative proposi tion asserts the exclusion of one class or part of a class from another. It follows that the negative particle, the sign of quality, must be understood to characterize the copula, not the subject or the predicate. How should we classify All citizens are not patriots? It seems to be a negative proposition, and the sign of quantity seems to indi cate it as universal.